South Sudan, the newest country


 In 2011, South Sudan voted on a referendum to separate and create the newest State in the world. The referendum is a consequence of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 that ended a civil war between the north and south of Sudan since 1983. About 2 million people died in this conflict and more than 4 million were displaced. This was just the last of a series of conflicts between the two sides that began in 1955, one year before the independence of Sudan from Egypt and the UK. The north, mostly Arab and Muslim, has always wanted to dominate the south, made up of black Africans with traditional beliefs mixed with Christianity, and which has more fertile lands and is rich in oil resources.

 Independence has meant nothing but hurdles for South Sudan. For example, peace with Sudan is fragile because the oil fields are close to the border between the two countries. After 22 years of civil war, maternal mortality is the highest in the world and infant mortality is among the highest, whilst most of the population cannot read nor write. With hardly any roads in the country, the 8-10 million Southern Sudanese are organized in 500 tribes that speak over 100 languages and are spread over an area larger than France. There is no clear unifying national self-perception other than opposing the north. Conflict between tribes is common, frequently with armed weapons and has finished in a new WAR between the mayor tribes in S.S